Aging considered as inevitable changes at different levels of genome, cell, and organism. From the accumulation of DNA damages to imperfect protein homeostasis, altered cellular communication and exhaustion of stem cells, aging is a major risk factor for many prevalent diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, diabetes, and neurological disorders. The cells are dynamic systems which through a cycle of processes such as replication, growth, and death could replenish the bodies' organs and tissues, keeping an entire organism in optimal working order. In many different tissues, adult stem cells are behind of these processes, replenishing dying cells to maintain normal tissue function and regenerating injured tissues. Therefore, adult stem cells play a vital role in preventing the aging of organs and tissues, and can delay aging. However, during aging these cells also undergo some detrimental changes such as alterations in the microenvironment, decline in the regenerative capacity, and loss of function. This review aims to discuss age-related changes of stem cells in different tissues and cells including skin, muscles, brain, heart, hair follicles, liver, and lung.
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The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS. A particular zone of tissue composed of a specialized microenvironment where stem cells are retained in a undifferentiated, self-renewable state. Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form. Review of the medical necessity of hospital or other health facility admissions, upon or within a short time following an admission, and periodic review of services provided during the course of treatment. Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell. Often the nucleus of a somatic cell is transferred into a recipient OVUM or stem cell (STEM CELLS) with the nucleus removed. This technology may provide means to generate autologous diploid pluripotent cell for therapeutic cloning, and a model for studying NUCLEAR REPROGRAMMING in embryonic stem cells. Nuclear transfer was first accomplished with frog eggs (RANA PIPIENS) and reported in 1952.