Despite their small numbers, cancer stem cells play a central role in driving cancer cell growth, chemotherapeutic resistance, and distal metastasis. Previous studies mainly focused on how DNA or histone modification determines cell fate in cancer. However, it is still largely unknown how RNA modifications orchestrate cancer cell fate decisions. More than 170 distinct RNA modifications have been identified in the RNA world, while only a few RNA base modifications have been found in mRNA. Growing evidence indicates that three mRNA modifications, inosine, 5-methylcytosine, and N-methyladenosine, are essential for the regulation of spatiotemporal gene expression during cancer stem cell fate transition. Furthermore, transcriptome-wide mapping has found that the aberrant deposition of mRNA modification, which can disrupt the gene regulatory network and lead to uncontrollable cancer cell growth, is widespread across different cancers. In this review, we try to summarize the recent advances of these three mRNA modifications in maintaining the stemness of cancer stem cells and discuss the underlying molecular mechanisms, which will shed light on the development of novel therapeutic approaches for eradicating cancer stem cells.
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Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell. Often the nucleus of a somatic cell is transferred into a recipient OVUM or stem cell (STEM CELLS) with the nucleus removed. This technology may provide means to generate autologous diploid pluripotent cell for therapeutic cloning, and a model for studying NUCLEAR REPROGRAMMING in embryonic stem cells. Nuclear transfer was first accomplished with frog eggs (RANA PIPIENS) and reported in 1952. The release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation for the purpose of leukapheresis, prior to stem cell transplantation. Hematopoietic growth factors or chemotherapeutic agents often are used to stimulate the mobilization. The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation. A homeodomain protein and transcription regulator that functions in BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS and EMBRYONIC STEM CELL proliferation and CELL SELF RENEWAL. It confers pluripotency on embryonic stem cells and prevents their differentiation towards extraembryonic ENDODERM and trophectoderm (TROPHOBLAST) CELL LINEAGES. Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.